Maxaa dhiirrigelinaya Ficillada TABAN ee imtixaanaadka shahaadiga ah?

abdirashid-ibrahimQiimaynta horumarka waxbarasho ee ardaygu waxay xaqiijisaa in la gaadhay ujeeddooyinkii waxbarasho ee dal lahaa iyo in kale (Wheeler, 1997). Sidaa uu ku doodayo Nevo (1995) qiimayntaasi siyaabo kala duwan ayay u arkaan khubarada waxbarashadu; qiimayntu waa mid xog siinaysa go’aan qaatayaasha waxbarashada si ay u qaataan go’aanno horumarineed oo ay ku hagayaan waxbarashada dal., waa hab lagu ogaanayo macluumaad sax ah oo ku saabsan tayada ama tayo la’aanta shay ka tirsan manhajka waxbarashada ee dalkaasi ku dhaqmayo si loo helo jiilkii hoggaamineed ee mustaqbalka dalka ee qaabayn lahaa bulshadaasi.

Imtixaanaadka ardaydu waa nidaam lagu cabbirayo in ay ardaydu waxyaabihii la baray ay barteen iyo inkale.Waa nidaam lagu ogaanayo kartida macallinka ee gudbinta waxbarashadii uu tabinayay. Imtixaankaasi waa kuwo ka yimaadda gudaha dugsiga & kuwo dibadeed. Imtixaanaadka gudaha waa kuwo ay diyaariyaan macallimiinta dugsigu iyagoo raacaya hababka baaritaano, warbixino iyo imtixaano bileedyo ardaygu galayo. Imtixaanaadka ka baxsan dugsigu (External Exams) waa kuwo loo samaynayo dano daleed oo lagu ogaanayo tayada iyo qiimaha waxbarashadii uu macallinka dugsigu u tabinayay ardayga muddadii uu dugsiga ka tirsanaa, waa imtixaano shaqo iyo saamayn midna aysan ku lahayn macallimiinta dugsiyadii ardaygu ka tirsanaa maaddaama oo ardaygii & macalinkiiba la qiimaynayo – Somaliland waxaa masuul uga ah Guddida Imtixaanaadka Qaranka (Somaliland National Examination Board – SLNEB). Natiijada ka soo baxda Imtixaanaadkaasi waxaa loo isticmaalaa in go’aano lagu qaato lagu qiimaynayo awoodda aqooneed ee ardayga la imtixaamay (Fasasi, 2006). Imtixaanaadkaasi waxay aradyga u suuro galinayaan in uu waxbarasho sare galo ama uu shaqo ku galo. Sidaasi oo ay tahay, go’aanno badan oo ku wajahan imtixaankii ardayga laga qaaday ee waddankeenu ma ahan kuwo dhammaantood wada sax ah, sababo ay keeneen dhaqannada ka hor imanaya hab imtixaanka togan ee looga baahnaa ardayga ee sababay qishka baahey ee imtixaanaadku.

Waayadan, sugidda hab gudashada TOGAN ee imtixaanaadku waa arrimaha ugu badan ee ay dawladuhu mashquulka ku yihiin, ma aha mid Somaliland u gaar ah. Dalka China wuxu mashquul ku yahay curinta sharci lagu sugayo amniga & gudashada imtixaanaadka si looga dheeraado akhlaaq darrada dhacda xilliga imtixaanaadka. Dalka Ingiriiska, imtixaamayaashu waxay hadda mashquul ku yihiin curinta qalab tiknoolaji ah oo lagaga hortagyo qishka imtixaanaadka. Gobolka Chhattisgarh ee dalka India waxaa la hir galiyay sharci ay mutaysanayaan 5 sanno oo xadhig ah kuwa lagu helo iyagoo caawinaya ardayda (Copying in Examination (Prevention) Act, 2008) – Somaliland waxaad arkaysaa caawiyayaal badan oo ardayda u gudbinaya qish & arrimo ka hor imanaya akhlaaqiyaadka suuban ee gudashada imtixaanka.

Ardayda waxaa laga filayaa daacadnimo marka ay galayaan imtixaanaadka, waxaase dunida meel kasta laga soo wariyaa in ay ardaydu ay qishaan imtixaanaadka (Mitukaz, 2001). Sida uu ku doodayo Anderman (2000) 80% ardayda darajada sare keena ee Dugsiyada Sarre iyo 75% ardayda Jaamacadaha waxay isku dayaan qish – waa cadad soo kordhayay 50 kii sanno ee u dambeeyey. 21% ardayda ku dooda in qishku yahay mid xun ayaa iyaguna sameeya dabeecadaasi (Kogotho, 2009).

In kastoo talaabooyin adag laga qaado ardayga lagu qabto daacad la’aan ku wajahan gudashadiisa imtixaanaadka shahaadiga ah oo ay ka mid yihiin in ardayga imtixaanka aan loo ogolaan, in natiijadiisa imtixaanka lasoo saaro iyo in macluumaadkiisa la shaaciyo – haddana, qishku wuxuu noqday mid sii faafaya oo aan bulshada ka daahnayn wakhtiyada imtixaanaadka lagu jirro.

Su’aasha ay tahay in la is waydiiyo ayaa waxay tahay waa maxay sababtay ay caadooyinkani u sii socdaan iyadoo talaabooyinkaasi adag la qaadayo si loo joojiyo ficilladaasi (Qishka)?

Imtixaanaadka dugsiyadu kaalin muhiim ah oo mug weyn ayay ka qaataan horumarka bulsho ee dhan walba. Waa sababta horumarka bulsho ugu xidhan yahay koboca nidaamkeeda waxbarasho.  Tayada tabobar kasta oo ay bulsho siiso hantideeda dadeed waxaa lagu cabbiraa imtixaanka dugsiyada. Sidaasi darteed, sharafta, hufnaanta & sugnaanshiyaha imtixaanaadka waddan kasta waa in si hinaase iyo digtooni leh loo ilaaliyaa, si cabbirka & natiijada ka soo baxdaa ay u noqoto mid run ka sheegaysa horumarka nidaamka waxbarasho ee dalkaasi.

Si aynu su’aasha sare uga jawaabno waxaan sameeyey xog ururin & kulammo aan la yeeshay daneeyayaasha kala duwan ee waxbarashada & imtixaanaadka (Ardayda, Waalidka, Macalimiinta, Maamulayaal & Masuuliyiin). Intii aan ku jiray xog ururinta ku saabsan ficilladii laga soo warinayay imtixaanaadkii shahaadiga ahaa ee sannadkan 2016 waxaa ii soo baxay in ay sababeen arrimahani;

Diyaar garowga & dhamaystirka Manhajka Waxbarasho;Dhisida kalsoonida ardaygu waa arrimaha muhiim ka u ah imtixaanaadka ardayga laga qaadayo si ay ugu gutaan hab daacadnimo ah oo togan.

Dhamaystir la’aanta manhajka waxbarasho ee maaddo kastaa waxay dhiirri gelisaa in uu ardaygu qisho imtixaanka taasi oo ay sabab u tahay kalsoonida ardayga oo aan dhisnayn(Jekayinta, 2006). Cilmi baadhis laga sameeyey Pakistan ayaa muujisay in diyaar garowga oo aan heer sare ahayni dhiirri galiyo in ay ardaydu qishaan (Saraj, 2006).

Marka aad eegto dugsiyada Sare ee dalka inta badan manhajka waxbarasho waxaa lagu dedaalaa in la dhammaystiro – dhammaystirkaasi manhajku ma ahan mid sidii loogu talo galay u socda oo wakhtigii ku habboonaa qabsoomaya, waxaase loo dhammays tiraa hab boobsiis ah iyadoo bilaha u dambeeya ardayda wakhtiyada cidhiidhi lagaga dhigo oo ay soo kallahaan, galinka dambe soo noqdaan isla markaana ay xiisas aad u badan ay qaataan.Tani waxay keentay in ardayga uu diyaar garowgiisu xumaado isla markaana ay ku dhacdo kalsooni darro badan oo sababta in uu qish sameeyo – waayo ma hayo wakhti ku filan oo uu ku diyaariyo ama ku barto wixii manhaj ahaa ee sida boobsiiska ah loo baray wakhtiyadii u dambeeyey ee ku dhawaa imtixaanaadka.Waa uu ku balaadhaa akhrisku oo ay ka baahdaa isla markaana wuxuu galaa xaalad qabyo-qabyo ah oo ardaygu aanu imtixaanka u galayn sidii daacadnimada ahayd ee laga rabay – taasi baddalkeeda wuxuu isku hawlaa xaalad & farsamo kasta oo uu ardaygu qish & tuugo ku samayn karo.

Kalsooni darrada ku dhacda ardaygu waxay saamayn ku yeelataa dedaalkii akhris ee ardaygu samayn lahaa – taasi beddelkeed waxaad arkaysaa iyagoo mashquul ku ah imtixaan la helay oo dacaayaddiisa ay daba yaacayaan iyadoo aysan jirin wax la helay. Habeenka ka horreeye imtixaanka waxaad la kulmaysaa ardaydii oo ku xoonsan meelaha wax lagu daabaco oo intaasi imtixaano hore sawiranaya, kuwaasi oo lagu sheegay imtixaan la helay iyagoo ardaydu diyaar u ah in ay iibsadaan imtixaanaadka ay galayaan haddii la helo oo uu imtixaanku baxo.

Cilmi baadhis laga sameeyey dalka Kenya ayaa muujisay in 88.8% ardaydu ay aaminsan yihiin in ardaygii dedaalaa ee akhris & diyaar garow sameeyaa uu imtixaanka si heer sarre ah u gudbayo. Somaliland, Ardayda dugsiyada ugu wanaagsan ee maamulayaashu kuu tilmaamayaan markaad la kulanto waxay ku odhanayaan “Sidaad doonto wax u akhri, haddii aanad qishin waxaad tahay ki dhaca, waayo kii kale ee aan waxba akhrisan ayaa A+ keenaya, markaa waa in aad adna aqoontaadii iyo qishka isku kaabtaa” – fikir kaas ka soo horjeeda waxaa qaba ardayda qaarkood oo ku odhanaya “Wixii aan soo bartay iyo dadaalkaygii ayaan ku meel marayaa”.

Cabsida & Deggenaanshiyo la’aanta ardayga; Kinai (2010) wuxuu ogaaday in xaaladda cabsida & deggenaanshiyo la’aanta ardayga ee ku wajahan imtixaanku ay ka mid tahay waxyaabaha dhiirri galiya qishka sababtoo ah ardayda waxaa gabi ahaanba ka lunsan kalsoonidii ay ku qabeen aqoontooda nafeed ee gudanaysa imtixaanka. Kulammada maamulka & macallimiinta dugsiyada Somaliland ee aan la kulannay waxay noo xaqiijiyeen in ardayda in badan oo ka mid ah aysan dadaal & wax akhris badan oo diyaar garow lihi ka muuqan isla markaana ay aad u yartahay ardayda waalidku daba socdo ee uu xaaladdooda ka war hayo – waxaa sidoo kale dugsiyda qaar aad u badan habsanka ardayda ee soo xaadirida fasalka, taasi oo ah arrimaha kalsoonida ardayga luminaya ee ku beeraya cabsi iyo deggenaanshiyo la’aanta.

Cadaadiska ardayga si uu darajo sarre u keeno& Dacaayadaha ardayda u saraysa imtixaanaadka;Iyadoo diyaar garowga hore ee dhanka dhammaystirka manhajku ay wax walba sal u tahay ayay haddana waalidku culays & cadaadis ardayga ku saaraan in uu darajo sare keeno si uu ugu gudbo darajada waxbarasho ee tan uu ka gudbayo ku xigta, waalidku xog kama hayaan xaaladda diyaar garow ee dhanka dugsiga &xaalada kalsoonida ardayga ee imtixaanku inta ay leegtahay.

Sida uu ku doodayo Jacobs (1999) ardaydu way qishaan imtixaanaadka marka uu jiro hadal hayn badan oo ku wajahan natiijada imtixaanaadka si qishkaasi uu kaalin uga siiyo in la hadal hayo oo kaalmaha hore ay soo galaan.  Natiijada imtixaanaadka dugsiyada Somaliland, gaar ahaan kuwa sare waa qaar aad loo hadal hayo – waxaad arkaysaa xaflado iska daba dhacaya oo loo qabanayo ardayda kaalmaha hore gashay “Top Ten events, Top Ten List) – iyadoo aad loo iclaamiyo in dugsi hebel galay kaalinta 1aad, 2aad, 3aad, 4aad iwm – hadal hayntaasi waa mid xad dhaaf ah oo ku soo baxaysa wararka telefishannada, mareegaha wararka & jariiradaha dalka.

Hadal hayntaasi & buun buunintaasi waa ta abuuraysa tartanka u dhexeeya dugsiyada qaarkood ee sababay in ardayda la saaro cadaadis dheeraad ah si ay kaalmaha hore ee imtixaanaadka ay ugu guulaystaan – taasi oo ay bulshada qaarkoodu arkaan in dugsiyada qaarkood aaminsan yihiin in ay u soo jiidayso sumcad iyo amaan kaga iman doonta dhanka bulshada oo keensan doonta in ay dugsiyadaasi helaan tiro badan oo arday ah, kuwaasi oo soo dalban doona dugsigooda sumcadda soo hooyay.

Culayskaasi ardayda la saarayaa wuxuu ka yimaadaa waalidinta, macalimiinta, asxaabta iyo bulshada guud ahaan. Waxaa sidoo kale tartankaasi curiyay tartan dhanka qishka ah oo ay ardaydii dugsiyada qaarkood bilaabeen iyagoo goobo cayiman ku diyaarinaya arday xarfaan ah oo hore dugsiyada uga baxay si ay Whatssup(Barnaamij Isgaadhsiineed taleefannada ku shaqeeya) ka uga soo caawiyaan marka su’aalaha imtixaanaadka loo soo gudbiyo.

Dalalka kale ee dunnida, gaar ahaan kuwa gobolka ardaydu waxay ku tartamaan in ay darajooyin sare keenaan si ay u galaan goobaha waxbarasho ee magaca weyn leh, tartanka noocaasi ma aha mid xaggeenna hadda jira – waxaa markaasi lagu doodi karaa in tartanka u dhexeeya ardayda & cadaadiska la saaraayaaba uu noqday mid taban oo saamayn xun yeelanaya.

Agabka Waxbarasho;Kisilu (2000) wuxuu ogaaday in yaraanshiyaha ama la’aanshiyaha agabka waxbarasho ee dugsiyadu ay sababaan in ardaydu qishaan maadaama oo aanay haysan agab ku filan sida; buugaagta, goobaha wax lagu akhriyo, laababka lagu sameeyo waxyaabaha u baahan in ardaydu ay gacanta ka qabtaan ee sayniska ah – agabkaasi oo ah mid dhisi lahaa kalsoonida ardayga. Somaliland oo ah dal duruufo badan ku hareeraysan yihiin inta badan dugsiyadu malaha goobahaasi kaabaya ardayga marka laga reebbo dugsiyo gaar loo leeyahay oo agabkaasi laga helayo balse  dhamaan bulshadu aanay fursad u wada lahayn duruufaha dhaqaale ee dalka ku gadaaman dartood.

La talinta, tilmaamidda & toosinta ardayga; In ardayga talooyin laga siiyo hab akhriska wanaagsan, diyaar garowga waxbarasho, hababka imtixaanaadka loo galo, natiijada xun ee qishku leeyahay, maamulidda wakhtiga, sida loogu adkaysto saamaynta ardayda aan fiicnayn ku yeelanayaan ardayga & kor u qaadidda hiigsiga &hammiga ardayga waa waxyaabaha abuura kalsoonida ardayga. Somaliland dugsiyadeeda waxbarasho gabi ahaan malaha qaybo u qaabilsan arrimahaasi aan kor ku soo sheegay oo muhiim u ah qaabaynta & qor-qoridda ardayga.

Ilaalada Imtixaanaadka & Tiknoolajiyadda; Kartida Ilaaliyayaasha hab-dhaqankainta lagu guda jiro imtixaanka ayaa ah sababaha la ogaaday in ay keenaan in ardaydu qishaan. Njeru (2008) wuxuu ogaaday in ilaaliyayaasha qaarkood aysan ahayn kuwo u diyaarsan habka wax loo ilaaliyo ama se ay ku mashquulaan in ay akhriyaan jariirado & waxyaabo kale. Somaliland waxaa si cad oo aad u muuqata loo ogodaay in ilaaliyayaasha imtixaanaadka qaarkood ay yihiin kuwo la shaqaynaya ardayda, iyagoo ardaydu hab musuqmaasuq ah ilaaliyahaasha ula macaamilayaan. Arday badan oo aan la kulmay oo ka mid ah kuwa dugsiyada sare waxay ii xaqiijiyeen in ilaaliyayaasha qaarkood ay kaliya ka ilaaliyaan hadba cidda soo booqanaysa hoolka imtixaanka, marka laga noqdana ay hawshooda qishka halkii ka sii wataan – tani waxay ardayda siinaysaa xaalad & fursad ay ku qishi karaan imtixaanka si xorriyad ah.Taasi beddelkeeda waxaa aad u badan iyana ilaaliyayaasha akhlaaqiyaadka suubban & kartida leh ee waajibaadkaasi la saaray u gudanaya sida qiimaha & wanaagga leh kuwaasi oo ay ardaydu cadaadis ku hayaan marka ay imtixaanaadku dhammaadaan.

Arrinta ilaaliyayaasha aan daacadda ahayni waxay ardayda u suuro galiyeen in ay isu abaabulaan kooxo ay ka soo shaqaynayeen bilihii ka horreeyey imtixaanka kooxahaasi oo aan ahayn kuwii waxbarasho ee aynu naqaanay balse ah kuwo loogu talo galay in qishku si sahlan arday walba ku gaadhi karo iyadoo ay ka faaiidaysanayaan Technology-ga casriga. Ardaydaasi waxay sameeyeen Whatsup, IMO, Viber & Messenger kala duwan.

Waxay sidoo kale ku diyaarsadaan goobta imtixaanka ay ku galayaan koox arday ah oo ay la wadaagaan su’aalaha imtixaanka oo iyaguna marka ay ka soo shaqeeyaan ugu soo diraya ‘group’ yadii hore looga soo diray. Si xidhiidhka madasha imtixaanka lagu jiro & qolada soo caawinaysaa u wanaagsanaado waxaa la soo warinayaa in shandadaha hablaha lagu soo rido Internet Wireless-yo hore ay ardaydu ugu soo diyaarsadeen mobile ku xidhmaya – ardayda si qishku ugu suuro galo qaarkood waxay soo qaadanayaan Laba Laba mobile iyagoo mid u dhiibaya ilaaliyaha ka kalana haysana si aan loogaba shakiyin.

Luqada Ingiriisida, Xisaabta & Fiisigiska; Inta badan ee ardayda dugsiyada sarre waxay aad ugu liitaan luqada Ingiriisida oo fure u ah fahamka imtixaanaadka iyo akhriska aqoontii la barayay ardayga – sidoo kale ardaydu waxay aad ugu liitaan maadooyinka Xisaabta, Fiisigiska & maadooyinka sayniska qaarkood – liidashadaasi luqadda & maaddooyinka kale waxay lumisay kalsoonidii ardayda iyagoo miciin bidaya inay qishaan imtixaanaadka.

SAAMAYNTA TABAN EE QISHKA IMTIXAANAADKA

Qishku wuxuu saamayn ku leeyahay ardayga, macallinka, dugsiga & nidaamka waxbarasho ee dalka oo uu ka dhigo guud ahaan kuwo fashilmay. Ardayda sameeya dhaqannada aan suubbanayn ee imtixaanaadku waxay yihiin kuwo mustaqbalkana ku suntan qishkaasi & wax is dabo marin – iyadoo habkaasi uu cagta u saaro ku noolaanshiyaha nolol aan daacad ahayn (Smith, Davy & Easterling, 2004). Cilmi baadhis ayaa muujisay in ardayda iskudaya in ay qishaan ee daacadnimo la yimaaddaa in ay u badan yihiin in ay sameeyaan dhac & tuugo ku wajahan shaqooyinka ay hayaan marka ay galaan suuqa shaqada (Nonis & Swift, 2001).

Dhaqan xumada imtixaanaadka & khiyaamada daneeyayaashu waxay dumisaa isla markaana meesha ka saartaa sumcada iyo karaamada hay’adaasi waxbarasho oo ah hantida ugu qaalisan ee hay’adaasi. Qishku, wuxuu jaha wareeriyaa hiigsiga waxbarasho ee daleed, hab gudbinta aqoonta & in ay soo saarto arday aan lahayn aqoonta ay sitaan shahaadadeeda (Whitley & Keith-Spiegel, 1998). Waxay saamayn xun ku yeelataa nidaamka waxbarasho isagoo dhiiri geliya daacadnimo darro badan oo ardayda dhexdooda ah (Bowers, 1964). Marka ardayda daacada ahi arkaan kuwa qishaya oo aan wax cawaaqib ah la kulmayn waxay dilaysaa mooraalkooda, kadib markay arkaan qishkii ardaydaasi oo helay darajooyin sare. Qishku wuxuu hoos u dhigaa daah furnaanta bahda waxbarashada marka ay ardaydu kala xadaan afkaarta (Mallon, 2004).

MAXAYNU YEELNAA SI CAQABADDA LOOGA GUDBO

Si hab dhaqanka aan suubbanayn ee imtixaanaadka loo yareeyo ama meeshaba looga saaro, waxaa loo baahan yahay dedaalo dheeraad ah in ay muujiyaan dhammaan daneeyayaasha waxbarashadu (Ardayda, waalidiinta, macalimiinta, xukuumada, shirkadaha u baahan shaqaalaha iwm).

  • Waxaa loo baahan yahay in dib loo eego habka & qaabka imtixaanaadka loo qaado iyadoo la diyaarinayo nidaam yaraynaya ama meesha ka saaraya dhaqan xumada ku wajahan gudashada imtixaanaadka – waa in lala jaan qaadaa jiilka cusub & hababka cusub ee qisheed.
  • Waxaa loo baahan yahay in la faafiyo isla markaana wacyi galin xoog badan laga sameeyo muhiimada akhlaaqiyaadka suubban ee gudashada imtixaanaadka & ilaalintoodaba; akhlaaqiyaadka shaqaale, dadnimo, daacadnimo, masuuliyadeed & wadaniyeed ee dhammaan inta ku hawlan waxbarashada & barbaarinta ardayda.
  • Waxaa lagama maarmaan ah in ardayda iyo waalidiintoodaba si cad loo ogaysiiyo cawaaqib xumada ka dhalanaysa qishka ardaydku kacaan – waxaa muhiim ah in ardaydu arkaan talaabooyin cad cad oo laga qaaday kuwo qish ku kacay. Tusaale, ardayda qishka lagu arko waa in la galiyaa Liiska Madaw (BLACK LIST) oo mamnuuc laga dhigaa in ay Jaamacadaha dalku qaataan isla markaana lagu daabacaa mareegta wasaaradda Waxbarashada magaciisa & in uu danbi noocaasi ah galay. Sidaasi si ka soo hor jeeda in la abaal mariyo oo la buun buuniyo ilaaliyayaasha karti iyo daacadnimada muujiya iyo ardayda akhlaaqiyaadka suuban muujisa.
  • Maadaama hab dhaqanka imtixaanka ee ardayga ay waxyaabo badan oo aynu kor ku soo sheegnay saamayn ku leeyihiin, waxaa lagama maarmaan ah in la shaqaalaysiiyo macalimiin tayadooda aqooneed la hubiyay isla markaana shahaado la yaqaan ku sita tebbinta aqoonta. In la shaqaalaysiiyo macalimiin & shaqaale karti, daacadnimo, toosnaan, akhlaaqiyaad suuban, la xisaabtan iyo astaamo hogaamineed leh oo ardayda u noqda tusaalayaal ay ku daydaan si loo diyaariyo arday kalsooni & dhiiranaan hufan leh.
  • Si loo dhiso kalsoonida ardayga, waxaa loo baahan yahay in dugsiyada lagu diyaariyo rugo akhris si heersare ah u qalabaysan oo kor loogu qaado dhaqanka suuban ee akhriska.
  • Waxaa loo baahan yahay in dugsiyada lagu diyaariyo shaybaadho & qalabka kale ee ardayda u sahlaya in waxyaabo badan oo ay hadal ahaan ku maqlaan in ay gacanta ka qabtaan si ay isku kalsoonaan & hanweyni nafeed u yeeshaan.
  • Waxaa loo baahan yahay in muddada ay waxbarashadu u socoto ardayda in lagu sameeyo qiimayno joogto ah (Continuous assessment) oo fasalka dhexdiisa ah, mid usbuucle ama bille ah si hab fikirka iyo diyaar garowga ardayda ay kor ugu qaaddo isla markaana kalsoonida ardaygu u dhisanto.
  • Waxaa loo baahan yahay in la taliyayaal khubaro ah loo shaqaalaysiiyo dugsi kasta oo lagu war galiyo in ardaydu xafiiskaasi ay talo iyo tusaaleba waydiisan karaan. Waxay ardayda ka caawin doonaan in ay ardaydu fahmaan nafahooda, habka wakhtiga loo maamulo, habka imtixaanaadka loo galo, habka nafahooda ay u maamuli lahaayeen, sida ay agabka ay haystaan u maamuli lahaayeen, uga faaiidaysan lahaayeen isla markaana awoodahooga & kartidooda uga faaiidaysan lahaayeen si ay nafahooda u hore-mariyaan.
  • Waxaa loo baahan yahay in wakhtigiisa lagu dhammaystiro manhajka & kaabayaasha kale ee ardaygu u baahan yahayba.
  • Maamulka dugsiyada & macalimiintu waa in ay ardayda u diyaariyaan imtixaanaadka iyagoo casharrada ay ardayda u dhigayaan mid walba wakhtigii loogu talo galay ku gudbinaya – halka ardaydana looga baahan yahay in ay diyaar garow adag ay sameeyaan si ay wakhti horeba ay diyaar ugu noqdaan imtixaanaadka iyagoo kalsooni buuxa ku qaba nafahooda.
  • Waxaa loo baahan yahay in laga dhiso ardayda luqadda ingiriisida & maaddooyinka Xisaabta, fiisigiska & Saynis-ka qaarkood.
  • In la daba galo ardayda iyadoo la ilaalinayo xaadirka Fasalka ay ka mid yihiin – si loo helo arday kalsooni buuxda leh oo aan xiisaska maqnayn isla markaana xaadir ahaa.
  • Waxaa quman in hab ilaalinta imtixaanku noqoto mid si heer sare ah oo khibrad leh ku dhacda oo ilaaliyuhu si akhlaaqiyaad leh u guto waajibaadka loo xilsaaray si uu u hubiyo in madasha imtixaanka lala soo galay waxyaabo ka mamnuuc ah sida waraaqo dibada laga keenay iyo dhammaan qalabka elektarooniga ah ee wax kaydiya (Mobile-ada, Ipad-ada iwm).
  • Waxaa loo baahan yahay in hay’adda Imtixaanaadku diiwaan gashato tabarrucayaal daacad ah oo ku tabarucaya wakhtigooda muddada 7 cisho ah ee imtixaanku socdo kuwaasi oo akhlaaqiyaadkooda & dadnimadooda la hubiyay.
  • Waxaa loo baahan yahay in maalmaha imtixaanaadka shahaadiga ah la galayo la fasaxo goobaha waxbarasho ee dalka gaar ahaan Jaamacadaha oo barayaashooda iyo maamulkooduba qayb ka noqdaan sidii ay kaalin mugleh uga qaadan lahaayeen caawinta & taageerida hay’adaha waxbarashada, gaar ahaan kuwa imtixaanaadka si loo soo saaro arday haybad, Sharaf & karaamo huwan oo ay ka muuqato aqoonta & waxyaabaha la soo baray.
  • Waxaa lagama maarmaan ah in shirkadaha gaarka loo leeyahay ee isgaadhsiintu ogaadaan in ay qayb ka yihiin imtixaanaadka ardayda laga qaado oo dadka la qiimaynayaa yihiin shaqeeyayaashoodii berrito, sidaasi darteed in ay hay’adaha waxbarashada dalka ka caawiyaan la dagaalanka dhaqan xumada imtixaanka ee tiknoolajiyadu suuro galinayso. Tusaale ahaan, barnaamijyada Whatsup & Messenger oo ahaa kuwa ugu badan ee ardaydu adeegsanayaan waxay ahaayeen gabi ahaanba barnaamijyo ay shirkaduhu ka xidhi karaan ardayda muddada cayiman ee imtixaanaadku socdaan, sidoo kale waxay hakin karayeen adeegyada 3G muddo cayiman – Shirkadda Ethio Telecom waxay Wasaaradda Waxbarashada Ethiopia ku caawisay in ay barnaamijyada ay ardaydu u adeegsadaan qishka ay ka xidhaan internet ka ardayda muddada imtixaanaadku socdaan.
  • Ugu dambayn waxaa loo baahan yahya in la yareeyo buun-buuninta ardayda darajada sare keenay ee imtixaanaadka ee dugsiyadu buun buuninayaan isla markaan Jariiradaha, telefishanada & goob kastaba loogu dabaal dagayo.
  • Waxaa lagama maarmaan ah in dhamaan hormoodka dugsiyadu ku dadaalaan sidii ay ardaydooda niyad ahaan ugu qancin lahaayeen in qishku uu yahay mamnuuc isla markaana kooxo kasta oo koox koox isugu abaabula si ay u qishaan talaabooyin adag laga qaadi doono.
  • Wasaaradda Waxbarashada & Tacliinta Sarre waaxdeeda kormeerka & Hubintu waa in ay qaadaa kormeero joogto ah oo aan la sii shaacin si loo hubiyo habsami u socodka hawlaha waxbarasho ee dugsiyadda ka socda, kuwo gaar loo leeyahay iyo kuwa dawladdaba.

Tixraacyo:

Anderman E, Midgley C (2004). Changes in Self-reported acdemic cheating accross the transition from middle school to high school. Contemplary Education Psychology, 29,., 499-517.

Fasasi YA (2006). Quality Assurance: A Practical Solution to Examination Malpractices in Nigerian Secondary Schools. International Journal of African & African American Studies, 5(2): 15-21

Jekayinta, O. (2006) Why examinations are loosing meaning in Nigeria, Jos University Review, PP 45 – 48

Jacobs, G. (1998) Cheating across the ages in USA Schools. New York: Mifflin Press

Kinai, T. (2010) Behaviour Modification and lifestyle Modifications. Alms Holistic Healthcare Limited. Nairobi

Kisilu, B. (2000). Cheating in Examinations, World Bank Publications, Vol. 2 Pg. 20

Njeru, I. (2008). Causes, frequencies and trend of student cheating in school Examinations, Unpublished Research Project, Kenyatta University.

Nonis, S and Swift, C O. “An Examination of the Relationship between Academic Dishonesty and Workplace Dishonesty”, Journal of Business Education 77, no. 2, (November-December 2001),

Saraj. A. (2006) Examinations in Pakistan. Pakistan: Laore Press

Wheeler DK (1997). Curriculum Process. London: Hodder and Stoughton.

Whitley, B E. “Factors Associated with Cheating Among College Students: A Review”,

Research in Higher Education 39, no. 3, (June, 1998).

Mahad & Tixgalin,

Cabdirashid Ibrahim Sh. Cabdiraxmaan

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